Education Reforms in Pakistan: Achievements and Roadblocks

Education in Pakistan has been a major topic of concern for many years. The country has faced numerous challenges, including low enrollment rates, poor quality of education, and inadequate infrastructure. However, in recent years, the government of Pakistan has implemented several education reforms to address these issues. These reforms have led to significant achievements, but many roadblocks still need to be overcome.

Achievements In The Education Sector Of Pakistan

According to the Ministry of Federal Education and Professional Training, the enrolment rate in secondary schools has increased from 29% in 2010 to 49% in 2023. This is a significant achievement, and it shows that the government’s and other stakeholders’ efforts are paying off.

Another achievement in the education sector is the increase in the number of schools. According to the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2022, the number of schools in Pakistan has increased from 250,000 in 2010 to 310,000 in 2023. This increase in the number of schools has helped to improve access to education, especially in remote and rural areas.

Government Initiatives to Promote Quality Education

Moreover, the government has introduced several initiatives to improve the quality of education in Pakistan. One such initiative is the National Education Policy 2021. The policy aims to provide quality education to all children in Pakistan and to make education accessible to everyone, regardless of their socio-economic background. The policy also aims to promote critical thinking, problem-solving, and creativity among students.

Roadblocks In Education Sector

However, some roadblocks still need to be addressed to ensure that all children in Pakistan have access to quality education. One of the major roadblocks is the lack of funding for education. According to UNESCO, Pakistan spends only 2.8% of its GDP on education, much lower than the recommended 4-6%. This lack of funding has resulted in poor infrastructure, inadequate teacher training, and school learning materials.

Another roadblock is the quality of teachers. According to ASER 2022, only 56% of teachers in Pakistan have received pre-service training. Moreover, teacher absenteeism is also a major problem in Pakistan. According to a World Bank report, teachers in rural areas are absent 30% of the time, while teachers in urban areas are absent 20%. This has a negative impact on the quality of education in Pakistan.

Furthermore, the gender gap in education is still a major problem in Pakistan. According to UNESCO, the literacy rate for women in Pakistan is 62%, much lower than that for men, 79%. Moreover, cultural and social barriers often discourage girls from attending school.


In conclusion, while there have been significant achievements in the education sector in Pakistan, there are still some roadblocks that need to be addressed. The government and other stakeholders need to increase funding for education, improve the quality of teachers, and address the gender gap in education to ensure that all children in Pakistan have access to quality education. If these roadblocks can be addressed, then Pakistan can achieve its goal of providing quality education to all its citizens.

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